Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Media Literacy and the Suffragettes as seen through a Montreal Prism

In 1911, Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst came to Canada, Toronto and Montreal to raise funds for her legal bills. Only on these and similar occasions did Canadians get to hear rational arguments about Britain's suffragette movement.


Well, I finally have got the first draft of Sister Salvation, the untold story of the suffrage movement in Montreal 1912/13 and an invasion of militant suffragettes from Britain - so now all I have to do is print it out double-spaced and work on it at leisure in the old fashioned way, with pen in hand.

I have a folder called Suffragette Tidbits, containing snippets of newspaper articles that I am using, all from 1912 and most about the British suffragettes.

I can't help but make this story a bit of a media literacy exercise, because that's my training. I studied media and worked in the media.

I will have one of my fake main characters, a rich girl at McGill's Royal Victoria College, decide she wants to work as a newspaper reporter and she will  comment on how the Montreal newspapers report on the suffragettes.

She'll remark that they either mock them as silly or revile them as violent terrorists. The headlines tend to be sensational. The little bits of editorializing tend to be mocking. In the Montreal Gazette anyway.


But Carrie Derick, one of my real characters, will get upset about the following headline, for one, because the reference to suffragettes is gratuitous.

The article (below)  is about an American Women's Labour Union visiting Montreal  in July 1912, where they are feted by the Montreal Council of Women, given a tour of Chateau Ramezay, etc.

Derick, an expert on women's working conditions in the city,  is not there to meet them: in my story she is cloistered in the Eastern Townships, upset about being denied the Chair of the Department of Botany at McGill, even though she deserved to get it.

A month earlier, in June, some striking garment workers, mostly women (but in a parade led by men and American Union Organizers) marched up St Lawrence Blvd yelling "No More Piecework" "No more blacklisting".

In Montreal women could march if they were part of a labour union, but not as suffragists.

Now THAT would have caused too much trouble, a woman-only march. Unseemly!

So Montreal's 'official' suffragists claimed to be 'sane and reasonable' and even simple, peaceful marches or demonstrations were out of the question in the city. Sister Salvation focuses on this fact and pokes fun of it.


Lots of people are coming to this website looking up Thérèse Casgrain and eugenics, but it is Carrie Derick (and lots of McGill profs) who supported eugenics. The Canadian establishment supported eugenics, but not exactly in the way Hitler twisted it.
Indeed, I have read that in Canada there was little opposition to the theory, unlike in Great Britain and the US and yes, even Germany.
Casgrain, being French Canadian, wasn't likely for eugenics. Eugenics scared the French Canadians, who had large families. The entire hygiene and purity movement did... which is why Adami chewed out the Montreal Council of Women in March 1912, saying they shouldn't head the Child Welfare Exhibit because they alienate the French fact and all they care about is Suffrage. I have Casgrain's  autobio on hand, but I won't bother to check: she would hardly admit to any prior interest in eugenics in 1971.
Still, in 1912, a coalition of French and English groups, led by Dr. Adami  of McGill and La Societe St Jean Baptiste, held a child welfare exhibit, where there was a display on eugenics. Right between the health and housing exhibits... Just par for the course, back then.

Monday, July 28, 2014

Thérèse Casgrain and Harper Government Politics and the News

Mrs. Pierre Casgrain's name on the letterhead of the Provincial Franchise Committee 1928


It's not often that my favorite topic, Canadian suffragists, trends on Twitter, but it seems last night it did.

The C.B.C. ran a story about how 'feminist icon' Thérèse Casgrain has been erased from public history by the Harper government, quietly erased.

The Globe and Mail ran a similar story, I see,

Now it is mid summer, slow news time, and the war in Gaza is two weeks old so boring (well, that's how it seems to go, sadly.)

Casgain is not the focus of my blog here, after all I am writing about Montreal Suffragists in 1912/13, but I have had to write about her and her autobiography A Woman in a Man's World.

That's because the Internet has some mis-info about her, saying she started the Montreal Suffrage Association in 1913. She didn't. She was an ingenue back then.

A couple of months ago I visited the Archives of the City of Montreal to look at the Fonds of La ligue des droits de la femme.



Gerin Lajoie was the first President of that organization, that had another name. But Thérèse  Casgrain was on the scene by then and would soon lead the organization.


It is unclear when Casgrain first got involved; the info in the autobiography clashes with other info... She claims she first visited Premier Gouin in a group in 1917 and gave a speech, but the truth is more likely 1921.





The organization was bilingual 50-50 French and English. Here's Idola St Jean's name on a document.


And in 1933 Thérèse Casgrain hosted Carrie Derick for a talk about suffrage, saying that Derick was a great woman who would go down in History. NOT.



 Anyway, all this comes the day I finished scrawling the final scene of my story Sister Salvation; the epigrammatic scene where the two fictional Royal Victoria College girls get into big trouble trying to march on the Mount Royal Club demanding Votes For Women.

Carrie Derick stops the march, just in time... and then the happy ending...

Sunday, July 27, 2014

Frances Fenwick Williams: A Very Private Public Person 1910 Montreal

Mrs. Frances Fenwick Williams is not listed as a member of the Montreal Suffrage Association under her usual name, but under Williams.


As I put together Sister Salvation (the story of the suffrage movement in Montreal in 1912/13 - and the British Invasion of militant suffragettes happening at that time) I have a little problem:

I can't discover what Frances Fenwick Williams looked like.

She's the Canadian author who was the press secretary for the Montreal Suffrage Association (1913-1919)

In my story, I have her give a talk to students at Royal Victoria College, about Montreal newspapers and the different factions that control them.

That's in October 1912... I also have her bring along a special guest, militant Suffragette Barbara Wylie.

I did find this interesting bit in the paper: Apparently in 1917 Frances FW came out in favor of Borden's Unionist government. Strongly in favor.



Dr. Ritchie England, President of the Montreal Council of Women campaigned for Laurier and got into hot water for it.

Carrie Derick, President of the Montreal Suffrage Association, steered clear of all controversy often by re-writing history on the spot.

Clever woman this Carrie Derick, who also figures largely in my Sister Salvation Story. She had a politician's way of playing with words and re-writing history.

She claimed that the Montreal Suffrage Association was started 'to keep the interest in suffrage alive' after Emmeline Pankhurst's 1911 speech in Montreal. Except there was no interest, really.

My story ends in 1917, but the article above contains a most interesting point: Fenwick Williams claims that five years before, that would be in 1912, she was in England campaigning for the suffragettes.

She may be lying, but maybe it is true. Maybe Frances Fenwick Williams was in England in August 1912 when Wylie 'accosted' Premier Borden and demanded the vote for Canadian women.

Borden then banned militant suffragettes from coming to Canada, but still they came. Wylie and then Caroline Kenney, sister of famous militant suffragette Annie Kenney.

Simon Fraser University has put together a bio of Williams.

She apparently got married in 1909, to a well-known New York City based city planner, but clearly that marriage didn't work out.

She moved back  home to Montreal almost immediately.




In 1911, her father, a stock broker in 'mining' was living at 24 Crescent...no salary mentioned in the Census data. She isn't living with him, she lives on Oldfield. (Where's that? Westmount?)

Carrie Derick lived at 65 Crescent in 1911. She was making 2,000 a year as an Assistant Professor at McGill, although that info isn't in the Census. I got it elsewhere.

In 1901 Frances, who would be 23 years old and the eldest of the Fenwick children, wasn't at home either. I wonder where she was? She claimed she had worked as a secretary for Dr. McPhail of McGill.

She later made fun of McPhail and his anti-suffrage stance in a 1915 book A Soul on Fire.

I don't think FW was a Donalda, a McGill graduate, but there are no early yearbooks online for the 1900 period, so I can't be sure.

Fenwick Williams  wrote short stories for some 'pulp' fiction magazines in the 1905 period and then published her first novel, The Arch-Satirist in 1910. Sometime around then she also wrote for the Montreal Herald. Don't know whether she reported or got a by-line.

I'm sure Royal Victoria College students would have loved to hear her talk.

A Wisconsin newspaper called her  1910 novel 'breezy summer reading.'



In 1919, the MSA disbanded, with only Mrs. Fenwick Williams dissenting. They essentially threw her off possibly because of her boistrous support of the Unionist Government. The MSA pretended to be non-political.

Later on she taught creative writing in Montreal.

She had many sisters and a brother, so likely she has descendants, but no direct descendants.

I wonder what went wrong with her marriage: so many things could have happened, abuse, gay husband, VD... didn't like being married.

But why she didn't get divorced? (My husband's grandmother, a wealthy woman, got married twice in the same era and just left her husbands, without divorcing.  She left one  of them, she claimed because he couldn't have children.)

According to the SFU blurb on Fenwick Williams her husband is listed on the US Census a living in a Club in New York throughout the decades until his death.

I can't find Frances on the 1921 Canada census either.




Saturday, July 26, 2014

Some Heretical Thinking about Plastic Bags and Groceries





My heritage collards and kale and romaine, among the weeds.


I know it is heretical to say so, but I think that charging for plastic bags at grocery  checkouts is a lot of bullshit.

Indeed, I think that most of this green-lifestyle shtick is smoke and mirrors, or bait and switch, or whatever, and that includes recycling.

I think it's similar to what happened in the 1950's, when governments sent around flyers telling people to do in the case of a nuclear strike.

Cover your eyes.

Stay inside for at least an hour.

Don't eat any food that isn't in a can.

It was absolute nonsense and the Powers-That-Be knew it, but it gave citizens a sense that they had some control over their fate.

I know, I found such a flyer in my in-laws' bookshelf, a few years ago.

I posted it online. It was bi-lingual.



I say this because for the third week in a row I have not been able to get down to the local Saturday farmers' market in a nearby town.

I can't recall why I didn't make it for the other times, but today, as I planned to go, my husband sent me a link to a web page showing that extensive roadwork was going on between here and there. Expect major delays, they said.

So this morning I headed out in the other direction the to IGA, to purchase some healthy greens and a red cabbage for cole slaw for supper.

My own garden, with 'heritage' collards, kale and romaine, is getting weedy. I need to do a second planting. I also need to learn how to grow a proper garden.


This IGA charges for plastic bags, which bugs me intensely.

Why? Because this IGA sells nothing but pre-prepared, heavily-packaged foods.

Two pieces of turnip on a styrofoam plate wrapped in three layers of plastic wrap.

2 oz of quiche in a 6 oz aluminium plate, wrapped in 100 oz of  super thick plastic in a cardboard box the size of a coffin.

OK. I'm exaggerating but only by a bit, a tiny bit,  and this certainly is the direction in which things are going.

I am guessing there's more plastic (and styrofoam and cardboard and aluminium foil) in their wares than proper edible food.) 

It's the way all major food emporiums have been going for over a decade.

It's how they make their profits, after all - and whatever is good for business is 'good.' (I read that in a book of essays from the 1930's that also had a famous story about the A &P. )

Anyway, I'm there, buying only a few things, as I can't afford food to shop in these places anymore, and I see the woman beside me has one of those eco-bags under her arm.

It's a hot summer day. She is sweating A LOT. She pays for her order and the bag boy bags her purchases and then my items roll down the belt.

My 8 oz of field greens are safe, they are in a thick hard plastic box (good for the environment, eh?).

But my little red cabbage ends up rolling in the remnants of the previous customer's icky body sweat.

I didn't follow her to the car, but I've seen such 'conscientious' consumers get out of their SUVS and take the bags from the back of their cars, where the St. Bernard has drooled all over it.

( I suspect that back at home, the kids mauled the bags with their snotty little hands as they helped Mommy put away the groceries and that the cat played in it, with kitty litter smeared paws licking out the rotting juices from the raw chicken it once contained.)

How sanitary is that?

Here's what I say. Use plastic bags! Or paper bags and then,  buy only non-packaged healthy foods.

It's not the bag, it's what you put in the bag!

Do as they do the local 'ethnic' store...that has been bought up by the IGA corp. so it will soon be filled with unhealthy high-profit packaged goods and not with beans and olives and delicious meats marinated in garlic!

Oh, and educate people about the proper disposing of plastic bags. Make these bags biodegradable like the doggie poop bags used everywhere, when dog poop is the ultimate biodegradable material.

Weird. This time, I didn't get asked to pay for the plastic bags.That's never happened before. Maybe I'm not the only customer who has complained to the check out girls and the bag boys of the hypocrisy of it all.








Thursday, July 24, 2014

Same Ole Same Ole about Women and Science

McGill Co-Ed Class of 1912 as in the Yearbook Online.


Many years ago in high school I was in a debate about 'women's lib' - and I recall my opponent, a young man brought up the issue that there have been no women geniuses.

I can't recall what I said back, probably something naive and stupid. I can't recall if I won the debate.

Anyway, this all comes to mind as I research my story Sister Salvation about the suffrage movement in Montreal, Canada. This is something we did not learn about at school, or perhaps I would have had more ammunition for the debate.

 Actually I am writing my story, but I keep finding interesting items online - and what I found yesterday was particularly interesting.

From February 1 to February 15, 1913, the Montreal Council of Women (and some of their member groups, specifically the Women's Club of Montreal) held a suffrage exhibit.

This was exactly the time that Mrs. Pankhurst's militants in England were revving up their campaign of civil disobedience - and making huge headlines in Montreal.

So the suffrage exhibit was of the calm, maternal variety, with valentines and jonquils and sweet suffragette chocolates. And a tea room.

They also sold reading materials of interest to women, with a literature bureau featuring books and pamphlets not only about suffrage, on all kinds of topics of interest to women.

It was a big money-maker...

A 1910 era magazine feature in Montreal.

The exhibit also featured a number of talks and debates. One of the people slated to give a talk was Carrie Derick, McGill Botany Professor and Past President of the Montreal Council of Women.

Right at this time she was fighting for her career prize, the Chair of Botany at McGill.  She had only recently heard that the job wasn't going to be given to her; that there'd be a competition open to anyone in the world.

As it happens Derick cancelled her talk. (In my book I am making this talk about Suffrage and Biology.

As it happens, a few days later, her friend and ally, Dean Walton of the McGill Law School debated Suffrage with a certain R.L. Calder, a lawyer... And in 1913 R.L. Calder used the same argument as the kid at my high school in the 1960's to say women weren't made for politics: No women had ever blazed a trail in mathematics, etc.  Of course, if I am correct, a few years ago the President of Harvard, Mr. Summers, is it, got into trouble for saying the same thing.












Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Fannie Farmer, Carbon Footprints and Love 'as per usual'.

Marion Nicholson's Fannie Farmer Cookbook, 1912...

Chicken was a relatively expensive meat in the 1910 era, available only half the year. (A 1895 bill shows a whole 4 1/2 pound chicken bought for 45 cents. Beef steak was also 10 cents a pound. Half a steer was purchased for 6 bucks.)

 Here's Fannie's recipe. "Dress, clean, stuff, and truss a chicken. Place on its back on a rack in a dripping pan, rub entire surface with salt, and spread breast and legs with three tablespoons butter, rubbed until creamy and mixed with two tablespoons flour. Dredge bottom of pan with flour. Place in a hot oven and when flour is well browned, reduce the heat and then baste. Stuffing 1: I cup cracker crumbs, 1/3 cup butter, 1/3 cup boiling water, salt and pepper, Powdered sage, summer savory or marjoram."

.....
If you want to reduce your carbon footprint, don't eat beef, claims a recent CBC article.  Pork is OK. Chicken is OK. Or at least better for the environment that beef. The CBC message boards lit up, people were divided on the topic.

This story comes around every five years, suggested one person on the message boards.

I myself don't put much store in articles like this, based on random studies.

I've always understood that pork is the creepiest meat, for a number of reasons.

And, and I've written about often on this blog, chicken isn't chicken anymore. It seems like industrial protein mush.

Just last week I bought my usual breaded chicken strips - a brand I like - and almost gagged. "They've changed the recipe," I told my husband. "They are using processed chicken."

But, no. The packaged insisted the chicken fingers were made from 'chicken breast strips'.

So I guess they've changed the chickens themselves. I have noticed that BBQ chickens are mushier this past year, except the Costco ones that they inject with salt.

OK. So how can I transition this food rant into the story of my book about the suffragettes in Montreal in 1912/13 Sister Salvation?

Easy.

I'm writing up the March 1913 scenes... and in March, 1913 Marion Nicholson, my husband's grandmother, writes a letter home to her Mom saying she made her first chicken and three apple pies, "and on the Sabbath too!"

Marion is an elementary school teacher and she made the bold move back in September of finding a flat for her and 3 other teachers to live in, BY THEMSELVES.

This was a very daring thing to do in the era of the Social Evil, Prostitution.

Even 27 year olds like Marion, with 6 years working experience, had to be careful about the image they projected in public.

The area of Hutchison where Marion lived in 1912/13.

But Marion took the flat, on Hutchison, with her sister Flora, also a teacher but in her first year, and her cousin May, also a teacher but in her second year and another girl who was the daughter of an M.N.A. also a teacher.

She did this by promising that her Mother was coming to keep house for her, but that wasn't entirely the case. Mother Margaret would come down once in a while for a couple of weeks at a time.

May's mother too.

Otherwise the 'working girls' were on their own and apparently their flat was topsy turvy most of the time.

But Marion got to see her beau, Mr. Blair, as much as she wanted to. And that was the point, I guess.

In a January 1913 letter her little sister Flora writes her Mom saying "Hugh is over as usual."

Hugh and Marion at Tighsolas with Floss. Norman 'receives' Hugh for a visit in Spring 1913.  The couple would marry in October.


In this chicken letter it seems that ambitious career-minded Marion is getting ready for some much homelier activities, by cooking and nursing her roommates who, as first year teachers, are always sick with colds.

It is clear that Mr. Blair or "Romeo" is thinking of proposing. In another March letter, Marion warns her father, Norman, to be ready to receive Mr. Blair  "whenever he wants to come."

... So this is what is happening to the Nicholson women in my story... the month that McGill Professor and prominent Social Reformer Carrie Derick turns down the Presidency of the soon-to-be-formed Montreal Suffrage Association. She claims she has too much work at McGill.

But a month later she takes on the position and the MSA is launched at a April 25 press conference and claims to be 'a sane and reasonable' organization and about to embark on a quiet education of the people.

The MSA must distance themselves from the British militant suffragettes. Their movement is peaking at that moment with Pankhurst's troops conducting a campaign of civil disobedience and deliberate destruction of government property - and getting a lot of headlines for it.

 Why does Derick changer her mind? Because President Peterson of McGill tells her that her job, as Full Professor of Morphological Botany, is merely a 'courtesy' position - and that she still has to work as a lowly lab demonstrator.

Pretty deflating for a woman who has fought all her life for each and every career advancement.

Meanwhile, in my Sister Salvation story,  two students at McGill's RVC, Royal Victoria College, are planning to have a suffrage march down Sherbrooke, inspired by Caroline Kenney, the sister of Annie Kenney, who is in Montreal trying to start a 'militant' organization.

---- So I better get to writing it out.
Just as Montrealers mount their new suffrage association, the suffragettes in England act up for real. Both these articles are from February 1913 Montreal Gazettes. "Recruits won for cause." Using military metaphors...despite the fact that the Montreal Suffrage Exhibit being reported on was filled with jonquils and valentines and 'sweet suffragette chocolates'.


Anyway, the Nicholson family accounts from the ear show that beef and pork is REAL CHEAP in Quebec in 1910, but chicken is pricey... available for only a few months a year. Chicken was pricey in the 20's as well, a luxury. That line "a chicken in every pot" meant a lot during the Depression.






Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Stepford Wife Suffragettes 1912

McGill athletes in 1910. One of my characters in Sister Salvation will be a female hockey player.

The Medium is the Message (or Massage). I learned that back in Communications Studies at McGill, when McLuhan was popular.

I still believe it.

Of course, the media has morphed into a multi-tentacled, multi-antennaed beast, since my kids have been alive, anyway.

I had to lauch (or cry) last week. I watched BBC World News to hear proper info about the Malaysia Airline Crash - but the reporter kept saying over and over "Now, I must stress, this is just spec- u- la- tion" as if by saying that it is OK to say non-facts to fill up air time.

I can't help but notice that the cbc.ca new website has become totally tabloid or "pervert of the week" is how Ted Turner described it, this 24 hour news monster he created.

The click and read format lends itself to tabloid news. Few of us can resist clicking on the tawdry, frightening or titillating headline or the picture of the beautiful blonde, 2 to 32, the "prize" of our society.

Sometimes we just read the headline and have our perceptions coloured by what is essentially a clever lie or mischievous play-on-words to get us to read further and see some advertising.

We are only human  which means we are just a bone-throw away from that great-ape that in experiments keeps pressing the pleasure button all day long.

So, in this context, John Oliver, a comedian, becomes the sensible social commentator, who keeps your attention with silly jokes while he spends 15 minutes or so explaining a topical issue. He talked about US Prisons this week, a terrible and troubling travesty of a topic avoided by the mainstream press.

Years ago I recall reading a book "The History of News" that explained how news evolved (from the early days when flyers were sent around accusing the Royal Family of perverted sexual acts) and how the sensational, crime stories, sex stories, gossip about the elite, has always been the most popular kind of news.

For my research into the Nicholson Family Letters  for my e-books I've spent a lot of time reading 1910 era newspapers. Most of these broadsheets were aimed at 'elite' men (except when there were women's sections with recipes and fashions) so the low-brow stuff was used as filler mostly.

(And it's amazing to see how similar this filler is to today's infotainment. We haven't changed a whit when it comes to our appetite for junk news.)


An article in both the Montreal Gazette and the New York Times that claims in sober fashion that suffagette-ism is a disease. These newspapers shared their stories about the British Suffagettes. But when the New York Times covered the May 3, 1913 suffrage parade on Fifth Avenue, they used two pages, three photos and conducted some excellent reporting covering all angles of the issue. (There were no marches in Montreal to report on: my story Sister Salvation explains why.)


The editorial section of the Montreal Gazette in 1911/12 had a main editorial or two and then short snippets, often about the demented, or scary, or crazy, or plain silly suffragettes of England, Mrs. Pankhurst and her lot.

This was as if to say, "The antics of these suffragettes are not important enough to take our full attention, but they should be watched from the corner of our eye and they are worth a good chuckle, occasionally. "

Of course, in England, Mrs. Pankhurst took advantage of all this: her movement was very image conscious.

It must have all seemed so "Stepford Wives" to the middle class men of England, back in March 1912, when 150 or so well-dressed women calmly walked up Oxford Street, then took hatchets from purses and proceeded to break shop windows.
When the Montreal Suffrage Association launched in March 1913, they promised to be peaceful and reasonable and go about 'a quiet education of the people.'  Even a peaceful suffrage march down Sherbrooke would have been considered 'militant' in Montreal - largely because the only news people got about woman suffrage was the sensational news about the British suffragettes.

In the fall of 1912, Premier Borden had banned British suffragettes from coming to Canada. It didn't work. A few of Pankhurst's troops did visit Montreal. One lady, Caroline Kenney, sister of famed militant Annie Kenney, lived here for a while. Her eldest sister was a Montrealer.

The Gazette, in general did not support woman suffrage. After all, they got a lot of their advertising from booze and suffragists of all stripes were generally against the liquor trade.

Anyway, I am working on Sister Salvation, the story of the Montreal Suffragists of 1911/12.  If the mass media didn't pay too much attention to the suffragettes back one hundred years ago, they certainly don't do it now.

A while back, pitching the story to a Canadian producer, she told me it was a " very important story" but with no audience.

There are only two books written about the Canadian Suffrage Movement and both are academic papers, using mostly newspaper sources.

In Britain, of course, this is different, although there has been but one TV series about the Suffragettes, Shoulder to Shoulder with Sian Phillips, in the 70's.

HBO dramatized Iron Jawed Angels with Hillary Swank a shorter while back too.

And now a movie called Suffragette is soon to be released, with an A-list cast that includes Helena Bonham Carter and Meryl Streep.

I wonder if it will earn any box office.

The story of the Canadian suffragists of Montreal in the 1910 era is essentially the story of the entire city - English side.

These same suffragists were social reformers and Montreal was in dire need of social reform in 1910. The city had the highest infant mortality rate in the Western World, it was said.
These suffragists, mostly Protestant, wanted to 'clean up City Hall'.. French City Hall.

It is also the story of McGill and the Industrial "Golden Mile" elite who ran the country. These men sat on the Board of Governors of McGill, Birks, Van Horne, Greenshields.

They decided in 1912 to deny Carrie Derick the Chair in Botany, a position she deserved, not because she was a woman, but because she was for woman suffrage, or so I will imply in my story.

Derick, as out-going President of the Montreal Council of Women,  invited Mrs. Pankhurst to speak in Montreal in October 1911, just before the suffragette leader renewed her campaign of civil disobedience and deliberate destruction of government property - after a truce of a year or so for the Coronation.

Pankhurst spoke in the City in December 191l at Windsor Hall. (200 tickets had to be given away.)

  Formidable Carrie Derick was played like a violin by the even more formidable Mrs. Pankhurst, who arranged this speaking tour in advance to earn money for legal bills, or so I will imply in my story.


The Warden of McGill's Royal Victoria College was a keen suffragist. She was a former Londoner.

I'm just putting it together scene by scene now...